Archaeology and Classics core courses - 36-37 credits
The following courses count as core courses toward the major in Archaeology & Classics. Please note: not all courses are offered every semester.

This course introduces students to ancient Greece and Rome's social and cultural history via the major works of historiography, literature, art, and architecture produced by those cultures. This course is classroom-based, but an on-site visit of historical and/or cultural importance may be required. 3 credit hours.

This is an introductory course on the material culture of the ancient Mediterranean, focusing on the city of Rome and its relationship to earlier, contemporaneous, and later related cultural traditions. The course focuses primarily on the artworks and artifacts produced by ancient Greece and Rome, with some sessions also treating the influence of Egyptian, Near Eastern, and Etruscan cultures and the afterlife of classical material culture post-antiquity. The course will be taught as a mixture of classroom lectures and on-site classes, enabling students to see as much ancient material culture as possible at first hand. 3 credit hours. Students are responsible for all entry fees.

This course in archaeological techniques introduces students to the principles of survey, excavation, post-excavation analysis, scientific testing, and heritage through a mixture of on-site visits, classroom lectures, practical classes, and fieldwork. The course will begin with a consideration of the ‘idea’ of the past and examine the historical development of archaeology. The course will then explore the key fieldwork techniques used to survey, excavate and record sites and monuments before considering how scientific techniques can date and analyze artifacts and environmental evidence. Contemporary issues of heritage practice, with particular reference to Rome, will be ad- dressed in conjunction with a group project. The course will make use of ongoing excavation and research in Rome and Italy, and it is possible that this will necessitate some weekend fieldwork. 3 credit hours.

This course explores the Roman Republic and Empire, from the development of Italic culture in the Bronze Age through the dissolution of the empire in late antiquity. Via primary sources, students examine the development of political forms and ideas in the Mediterranean and their impact on Rome, the relationship of art and literature to society and politics, and developments in the areas of religion, science, and the economy. The course includes three required field trips to historical sites and museums in Rome and Ostia. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: ENG 102. Students are responsible for all entry fees.

This introductory course surveys the history of conservation and restoration and addresses current ethical dilemmas that curators, art historians, scientists, and archaeologists face. Students will debate the various issues involved in the care of cultural heritage with reference to professional organizations, special interest groups, cultural identity, and economic development. Present and past use of an artifact, whether as a functional object, cultural symbol, historical record, or domestic space, requires that the conservator understand both the tangible and intangible nature of objects. Particular reference will be made to the art and archaeology of Rome. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A 100-level Art History or Archaeology course or permission of the instructor.

This course examines the theoretical foundations which underpin all archaeological interpretations. We will examine how theory has changed the interpretation of human society over time, relating this both to developments in methodology (e.g., the introduction of scientific archaeology) and changes in contemporary society (e.g., post-colonial archaeology). The course will be organized in a broadly historiographical format analyzing prevailing theoretical concerns in different time periods in both the United States and Europe. Classes will follow a seminar format, and students will be expected to come to class prepared to participate fully in the discussion. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: 200 level ARC or Ancient History course, or permission of the instructor.

This course is designed for advanced students in Archaeology and Classics to explore a particular topic (time period, theme, theoretical approach, author, etc.) in a discussion-based seminar setting. Students should expect to complete extensive readings of primary and secondary sources (100+ pages per week) and compile their research into a substantial written output (8000+ words over the course of the semester). Topics will be selected based on current trends in Archaeology and Classics and student and faculty interests. The course may include one or more required field trips. Students may take this course twice, provided the topics are different. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A 300-level course in Archaeology or Classics and Junior standing, or permission of the instructor.

The research skills course will usually be taken in the penultimate semester to support advanced work in Archaeology and Classics. The course will develop skills in three areas: online and library research; quantitative analysis, focusing on the appropriate use and interpretation of quantitative techniques (rather than in carrying out the computation); qualitative analysis, focusing on the appropriate integration of such data into research projects. The overall goal of the course is to provide students with a holistic understanding of the range of approaches to the disciplines of Archaeology and Classics. Students completing this course are prepared to write a capstone thesis in their final semester. 3 credits. Pre-requisites: AUR Degree seeking students with Senior standing in Archaeology and Classics.

This course provides an introduction to ancient Greek grammar, syntax, and vocabulary. Over the course of the semester, students will gain the basic skills to read and analyze adapted selections from classical Greek authors and the New Testament. Comparative linguistic issues, including the influence of ancient Greek on modern languages and Greek prose composition, will also be studied. 4 credit hours.

The city of Rome is full of Latin inscriptions, which can be found on standing monuments and in museums. This introductory Latin course acquaints students with the basic rudiments of the Latin language, particularly on learning to read inscriptions. This course will include explorations of Rome to analyze inscriptions in situ and in museums. The course divides into two sections: an introduction to basic grammar and an examination of epigraphic texts of progressive difficulty and length, in which the historical, topographical, and social context of the inscription will also be examined. This course is an alternative to LTN 101. 3 credit hours.

Open to students with no previous training in Latin, this course offers an introduction to the fundamentals of the language. Major emphasis is given to grammar and syntax, composition, and reading. The course develops direct reading comprehension of Latin from graduated texts, short stories and dramas; and, through them, provides an introduction to ancient Roman civilization. The course also aims to build a grammatical foundation to develop further proficiency levels. This course is an alternative to LTN 100. 4 credit hours.


Plus one of the following courses

This course discusses the material remains of North Africa from Morocco to Libya and from the foundation of Carthage around 800 BC until the conquest of the same city by the Arabs in 698 AD. Special attention will be paid to the cultural interactions of native and foreign populations that shaped its identity: Numidians, Phoenicians, Romans, Berbers, Vandals, Byzantines, and Arabs. Major themes that will be treated are religion, economy, urban culture, art and architecture, and the administration of the territory. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A lower-level Archaeology & Classics or Art History course or permission of the instructor.

This is a survey course on the archaeology of Greece covering the period from the Greek Bronze Age to the absorption of Greece into the Roman Empire. It will cover the material within a chronological framework, and classroom lectures will be supplemented by a visit to the Greek collection at the Vatican Museums. Particular attention will be paid to issues of cultural transmission and the wider influence Greece had on surrounding communities. The course will finish with an examination of archaeology's role in forming modern Greece and issues within contemporary Greek heritage. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: Sophomore standing or permission of the instructor.

This course is an introduction to the history and civilization of Egypt. The aim of the course is to provide a broad overview of Egyptian society and culture as revealed through art and archaeology. The first half of the course will follow a chronological path covering the emergence and decline of Egyptian civilization. After the midterm exam, the class will explore themes. The course will also cover the West's re-discovery of Egypt and the dilemmas modern Egypt faces in caring for this remarkable heritage. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: ENG 100 or ENG 101.

This course explores the material culture of the period 10,000 BCE to the Crusades in the region commonly called the ‘Holy Land’ (modern-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and Palestine). Following a chronological framework, the course will examine the archaeological evidence for the first permanent settlements, the rise of urbanism, and the subsequent migrations/invasions by other groups such as the Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Greeks, and Romans. The course will finish by looking at the arrival of the Islamic religion and the consequent Christian reaction resulting in the Crusades. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: Level 100 archaeology course or permission of the instructor.

This course will give an introduction to the kingdoms of the Ancient Near East, which were crucial to the development of the Old World. Basic knowledge about history, topography, and society is the starting point for understanding each period, progressing into explorations of typical elements such as the development of cities with their palaces, temples and ziggurats, cylinder seals, cuneiform writing, and relief sculpture. Points of special interest are the origins of highly developed early civilizations, Mesopotamia as an area of permanent exchange and conflict, the influences on the West, and Near Eastern monuments as part of the world’s cultural heritage. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: Sophomore standing or permission of the instructor.

This course will explore the sites, monuments, and artifacts of the Bronze Age Aegean – illuminating the Early Bronze Age culture of the Cyclades and the Minoan and Mycenaean palace cultures that evolved there. It will also examine their relationships with other peoples with whom they shared the Mediterranean Sea – such as the Egyptians, Assyrians, Hittites, and the inhabitants of Troy. This course will be mainly classroom-based but will include a required field trip to Greece. On this field trip – one night in Athens and two nights in Nafplio – students will visit the National Archaeological Museum and Goulandris Museum of Cycladic Art in Athens, the archaeological sites of Mycenae and Tiryns and the Nafplio Archaeological Museum. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: ENG 102. An additional fee will be collected for the compulsory field trip. Students arrange their own transportation to Athens.


Plus one of the following courses

This upper-level archaeology course explores funerary archaeology, including the symbolism of graves and grave goods, the new technological and forensic advances in burial archaeology, and cultural sensitivities concerning the study and excavation of human remains. The course will focus on the burials of the Etruscans and the Romans and will include field trips to archaeological sites, museums, and archaeological laboratories. Students will be required to pay their own entry fees to museums and archaeological sites, which will cost approximately Euro 50. Please note: coursework will involve looking at images of burials and may involve handling human skeletal material. Students who are uncomfortable with either of these activities are advised not to take this course. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A level 200 archaeology course or permission of the instructor. Students are responsible for all entry fees.

Geo-archaeology is the use of geoscience methodology to determine past events. Using these techniques in a legal context constitutes forensic geo-archaeology. This course introduces students to this specialization. The course will cover the methodology of investigating burials and analyzing geo-scientific data. Procedural issues such as interaction with other forensics experts and the police and the impact of popular television shows on public perception will also be covered. Much of the course will be in the form of case studies of both solved and unsolved crimes. We will investigate cases from the facts that make up each side to the potential evidence useful to expose culprits. This course will be full of discussions about the cases and creative approaches to reaching the solutions. The approach is hands-on so students can participate in the process, not simply study it. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: An introductory course in archaeological methodology and a level 200 archaeology course or permission of the instructor.

Geographical Information Science and Remote Sensing techniques can be used to explore archaeological landscapes. This course will analyze these techniques through case studies from different archaeological periods and regions. The course will teach students to evaluate standard techniques and to map and analyze archaeological data. Students will also critically assess the contribution of GIS to the theoretical and methodological development of landscape archaeology. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: An introductory methodology course and a level 200 archaeology course or permission of the instructor.

This course is offered at undergraduate and graduate level. It provides an interdisciplinary exploration of the role of culture and heritage in tourism at the local, regional, national and international levels. Emphasis is placed on developing theoretical and practical insights into heritage related to place, community, ethnicity and identity, as well as the stakeholders in the local and global tourism industry. Students will develop practical skills in developing and managing cultural destinations and heritage sites, based on applied readings and hands-on learning through on-site visits. Particular emphasis will be placed on factors affecting the impact on host communities, the visitor experience and developing tourism in a way that is both ethical and sustainable in the long term. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: Senior standing or permission of the instructor.

This course explores the management of archaeological sites and artifacts. It examines how archaeology developed from being a leisure pastime to becoming a scientific endeavor and, lately, an important part of the local economy. Contemporary archaeology has to balance scientific goals with the cultural and social objectives of local communities. The course analyzes the challenges inherent in managing archaeological heritage, including the difficulties of private-public partnerships, the statutory regulations, and the imperative to manage heritage tourism sustainably and engage the local community. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: Level 300 archaeology course or permission of the instructor.

Management of Cultural Heritage explores theoretical and ethical issues directly applicable to management decisions concerning cultural heritage sites impacted by modern tourism. Issues of authenticity, cultural identity, art ownership and enterprise, ideology and commoditization of art heritage, trade in art and antiquities, restitution and repatriation will be discussed in theoretical terms and in case study analyses and on-site visits. The aims of the course are to enable students to evaluate real situations of cultural heritage and tourism, and to exercise judgment in ethical issues involving cultural heritage. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: An introductory-level Art History, Archaeology or Business or Management course or permission of the instructor.

This course introduces upper-division students to the field of museum studies, both as a career option and a scholarly field by considering the ways in which museums can explore the relationships between the cultural contexts of viewer, object, and other public and private stakeholders. The course will cover the basics of museum acquisitions, collections, exhibitions, and installations across a variety of museums, with a particular focus on art and archaeology museums based in Rome. Additional rotating issues and case studies may explore themes of gallery management, cultural heritage, the business of art, fakes and forgeries, decolonialization, curation, and auction houses. The course may include site visits, internships at museums, and the production of an original exhibition show on campus as a final student project. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: Any 200-level Humanities course. Students must pay their own entrance fees when required.


Plus one of the following courses

Roman Imperial Art and Architecture is a study of ancient Roman architecture, sculpture, painting and minor arts from 27 BC to AD 193. The focus is on the city of Rome and the ancient capital’s imperial dominion in the peninsula and the Mediterranean. The approach to the material is at technical, stylistic, and iconographical levels understood within the historical context. On-site visits in Rome alternate with class lectures and a possible excursion outside Rome. The goals are to create a thorough preparation for critical analysis of artifacts and source material, to develop research techniques and skills of interpretation of ancient art and architecture. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A 100-level Art History course. An additional fee may be collected in the event of a required excursion.

This upper-level on-site course examines the archaeological remains of Rome from the perspective of the different ethnic, cultural, and social groups that populated the city and whose interaction created Roman identity. Roman society has often been presented as a uniform monoculture, but developments in archaeological theory have allowed us to recognize diverse influences and chart the evolving construction of Roman identity, which underlay political power. What was considered ‘Roman’ was not static but changed according to period, class, and setting and nearly always involved negative judgments of “others” who were perceived as displaying non-Roman characteristics. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: An Archaeology or Ancient History (including HST 201) or Classical Studies course or permission of the instructor.

This is an upper-level course focusing on the current techniques and controversies surrounding the preservation of ancient monuments, historic buildings, and stone sculptures. The course will comprise a classroom element where the underlying theories are discussed and an off-campus element reviewing case studies in the framework of the historical development of conservation and preservation. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A lower-level Archaeology or Art History course, including aspects of architecture or AHAR 207 or permission of the instructor.

The Roman Republic traditionally began in 509 and lasted until the dictatorship of Julius Caesar (46-44). This course concentrates on the last fifty years of the Republic, down to 42 when the Republican forces were finally defeated at Philippi. Emphasis is given to reading and analyzing primary texts (in translation), with particular importance given to the works of Cicero and Caesar. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A Classics or Classical Studies or Ancient History course or permission of the instructor.

An examination of classical rhetoric's nature, purpose, and place in classical antiquity as conceived and practiced by the ancient Greeks and Romans. Selected readings focus on the writings of the pre-Socratic poets, sophists, and historians (Homer, Gorgias, Thucydides), Socratic and post-Socratic philosophers (Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle), as well as Greek and Roman orators (Demosthenes, Cicero). Particular attention is paid to the origin, formulation, and use of rhetoric as an art of persuasion in the Greek city-state of Athens, as well as to the subsequent transformation and application of oratory as the ‘arms’ of politics in Athens and then in Rome. The practical aim of the course is to prepare students with the necessary vocabulary and theoretical foundation to examine the use – and abuse – of rhetoric in contemporary politics, economics, marketing, media, and visual arts. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A Classics or Classical Studies or Ancient History course and Junior or Senior standing or permission of the instructor.

This interdisciplinary course combines archaeology, art history, history, literature, and sociology to explore a defining moment in the ancient world: Rome at the time of Augustus (c.44 BC-c.14 AD). The students will create an image of the emperor Augustus through his own building projects and writings and assess the role of imperial propaganda in this process. We ask how culture, identity, and power were shaped in particular contexts by social factors such as religion, gender, the economy, and status. We present case studies of building projects and review contemporary philosophical ideas and commentary. This interdisciplinary course enables students to develop their analysis and evaluation skills across a range of ancient source materials. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A 200-level course in Art History, Archaeology, Classical Studies, or permission of the instructor.

This course explores the art of Rome in transition from the late Imperial age into the early Chris- tian, from the 3rd to the 6th centuries. Attention is also paid to the developments across the Mediterranean region and Constantinople, the relationship to Late Antique art, and the formation of Christian iconography. Classes are held off-campus and in the classroom, with a possible excursion outside Rome. The course goals are to grasp the nature of art in transition periods and hone critical analysis skills. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A 100-level Art History course. Students are responsible for all entry fees. An additional fee may be collected in the event of a required excursion.

This course outlines the development of the epic genre from Antiquity to the Renaissance (in translation). Both the linear narratives of Homer and Virgil and the episodic alternative, exemplified by Ovid’s Metamorphoses, will be studied. This course traces a number of strands in the broad epic tradition. Narratives of warfare, quest narratives (both geographical and spiritual), and the combination of the two in narratives of chivalry and love will be explored in both the classical period and beyond. Emphasis will be both upon the literary qualities of these poems and the values and ideals of the societies that produced them. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A Classics or Classical Studies or Ancient History course or permission of the instructor.

This is an upper-level course studying the art and archaeology of the Etruscans from their emergence at the beginning of the first millennium BC until their absorption by the Romans. The course will take full advantage of the rich museum collections of Etruscan material in Rome and may include a field trip to the sites of Cerveterii and Tarquinia. The course will look at the origins of the Etruscans, their art and material culture, their interactions with other groups, and their eventual absorption by the Romans. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: A previous course in classics, classical studies, ancient art history, or archaeology or permission of the instructor. Students are responsible for all entry fees.

This course will explore the major sites of Ancient Italy, such as Rome, Ostia, and Pompeii, from temples to dedications and their role in religion and society. Primary sources for the study of Roman religion, both textual and archaeological, will be analyzed and contextualized, and major scholarly theories of Roman religion and society will also be considered. At least one session of the course will be conducted in the Archaeological Study Collection of the American Academy of Rome, and students will be expected to visit archaeological sites and museums for individual re- search in addition to scheduled class meetings. This course may involve off-campus classes and Friday off-campus visits in Rome. 3 credit hours. Pre-requisites: AHAR 101 or CLHS 205, or permission of the instructor.


Archaeology and Classics elective courses - 15 credits
Students will take 15 credits of elective courses to fulfill the requirements for the major. All students are strongly recommended to take the Archaeology Practicum course (which may be repeated for credit). At least six credits must be at the 300-level or above. See the catalog for full details of these courses.

  • AHAR 204 Ancient North Africa: The Archaeology and Art History of the Other Side of the Mediterranean
  • AHAR 214 Egyptian Art and Archaeology
  • AHAR 221 Minoans and Mycenaeans: Archaeology and Art History of the Aegean Bronze Age
  • AHAR 255 Berlin Museums and Cultural Dilemma (1 credit)
  • AHAR 300 Roman Imperial Art and Architecture
  • AHAR 307 Late Antique and Byzantine Art
  • AHAR 314 Etruscan Art and Archaeology
  • AHAR 317 Introduction to Museum Studies
  • ANT 100 Introduction to Anthropology
  • ANT 300 The Mediterranean World
  • ARC 101 Roman Archaeology On-Site
  • ARC 103 Ancient Roman Technology
  • ARC 203 Global Heritage
  • ARC 205 Archaeology of the Holy Land
  • ARC 206 Archaeology of Greece
  • ARC 215 Great Kingdoms of the Ancient Near East
  • ARC 253 Pottery and Archaeology (1 credit)
  • ARC 254 Athens: Archaeology of the Golden Age (1 credit)
  • ARC 255 British Museum and Roman London Fieldtrip (1 credit)
  • ARC 256 Cities and Museums of Central Italy: Arezzo, Firenze, Bologna (1 credit)
  • ARC 291 Archaeology Practicum (1 credit)
  • ARC 293 Archaeology Practicum
  • ARC 301 Archaeology of Roman Identity
  • ARC 306 Mediterranean Landscapes
  • ARC 308 Bodies and Burials
  • ARC 312 Forensic Geo-Archaeology: Materials and Methods
  • ARC 313 GIS and Remote Sensing in the Archaeological Landscape
  • ARC 404 Archaeology of Food
  • ARC 406 Archaeological Resource Management
  • ARC 499 Capstone Experience (Thesis)
  • ARCL 209 Roman Army
  • ARCL 252 Sicily: The Archaeology of the Hellenistic Mediterranean (1 credit)
  • ARCL 305 Rome of Augustus
  • ARMG 315 Management of Cultural Heritage
  • CLHS 207 Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome
  • CLHS 302 Caesar, Cicero and the Collapse of the Roman Republic
  • CLRE 202 Christianity and the Roman Empire (100-425 AD)
  • CLS 101 Greek and Roman Mythology
  • CLS 204 Classics and Comics: Ancient Culture and Modern Sequential Art
  • CLS 208 Love and Laughter in Ancient Literature
  • CLS 210 Greek and Roman Drama
  • CLS 304 Classical Greek and Roman Rhetoric
  • CLS 307 Heroes and Lovers: Epic and the Epic Tradition
  • CLS 312 Magna Graecia
  • CLS 401 Rome: The City in Text
  • GRK 101 Elementary Ancient Greek I (4 credits)
  • GRK 102 Elementary Ancient Greek II (4 credits)
  • GRK 201 Intermediate Greek I
  • LTN 100 Learning Latin Through Inscriptions Elementary Latin and Epigraphy
  • LTN 101 Beginning Latin I (4 credits)
  • LTN 102 Beginning Latin II (4 credits)
  • LTN 202 Latin Readings in Literature
  • LTN 250 Readings in Intermediate Latin
  • LTN 303 Lyric and Elegy
  • LTN 304 Virgil
  • LTN 305 Reading in Medieval Latin
  • TTM 408 Cultural and Heritage Tourism: Intercultural Interactions